version 41   
LARC 2023 Ham Course Information

Various documentation related to the LARC Ham Basic License course, held via Zoom for the second time.

Comments, questions and suggestions are always welcome. Please contact the Education Coordinator:
    Doug Elliott  VA3DAE, email:, cell & text: 519-630-8925

Table of Contents:
Course Logistics      Technical References Activities for New Hams
100) General Information on the course 200) Instructions to run Chapter self tests 300) Saturday AM Hams & Eggs breakfast
101) Schedule, topics, chapters, instructors 201) Website to check for available call signs 301) Elmer net - just for new hams!
102) Map to the Wing 202) Government test on selectable categories 302) Other VHF nets
103) LARC members can audit course sessions 203) Handouts for classes (work in progess) 303) LARC Meetings
104) Recordings for class Zoom sessions 204) Entire exam question bank with answers (March 30, 2023) 304) Morse Code? Here's How
105) Homework After Each Class: List of items 205) Government full practice exam 305) Join RAC
106) link for giving class feedback 206) Exam Questions for each study guide chapter 306) Call Sign License plates
107) Handouts for each session 207) Government Reference Documents 307) Join the LARC group
208) Other Technical Reference Documents 308) Field Day
209) Solar Weather/Northern Lights: 309) Fox Hunts:
210) Position of ISS and 310) A list of new ham activities
211) Tricky exam questions explained (additions welcome)
  212) Detailed Radio Spectrum Chart: Zoomable PDF file  
  213) BBC Series on Electricity Basics  
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LARC members can audit course sessions
Members in good standing of the London Amateur Radio Club are welcome to audit any course session they wish to brush up on. There is no charge for this, but those auditing are expected to be silent observers, and not actively participate or ask questions. If this is of interest please get in touch with Doug Elliott (contact details at top of this page).
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Recordings for class Zoom sessions
The first class Zoom session was recorded. To make it easier to review the 3 hour session, it's broken into parts where the class took a break. Here are the links to the edited recordings which are mp4 files on Vimeo:

Date Chapter Part Video link Length
Sep 9 1 1 51 minutes
1 2 1:08 minutes
1 3 39 minutes

To view the recorded sessions (if you have the password): These files are huge (gigabytes) and you should view them directly in Vimeo, following this process:

-click on one of the links above
-enter the confidential password you received in an email
-click on submit
-click on the icon with 4 arrows in the bottom right corner of your screen to get full sized video
-make sure your computer sound is enabled, turned up, and if you're using headphones (recommended), put them on
-click on the Play icon in the bottom left corner that is a white triangle on its side

This should start the video. If you have any problems with this process, please let Doug know.

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Homework after each class

- respond to class evaluation email
- do the online chapter test(s) for chapters just covered (see link 200 above)
   (write down any questions & bring to next class)
- review the exam questions for chapter(s) just covered

- read the guide chapter(s) for the next class
   (write down any questions & bring to next class)
- review the handouts for the next class
- explore some part of ham radio
  (LARC meeting, LARC website, Google stuff, course website links

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Electronic handouts for classes

Links to the handout documents will appear in this section of the website.
Sept 16, Chapters 2 & 3 LARC Course 2023 Chap 2-3 R.pdf
Sep 23, Chapter 4 LARC Course 2023 Chap 4 R.pdf
Sep 30 Chapter 5 & 6 LARC Course 2023 Chap 5-6 R.pdf
Oct 14, Chapters 7 & 8 Transmission Lines and Antennas
Oct 21, Chapter 9
Oct 28, Chapter 10
            Chapter 11  Establishing a station
Nov 4, Chapter 12 Operating using: Digital Modes  VHF/UHF  HF
Nov 11, Chapter 13 Modulation-and-Transmitters
Nov 18, Chapter 14 Receivers
Nov 25, Chapters 16 and 17  
Dec 2, Chapter 15  

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Exam questions for each Study Guide chapter (old, but useful)

zip of all chapters

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Government Reference Documents

 Name Copy on this website Last Website Update Official Government Copy Description
RIC-3 click here 2022-09-29 click here The Radiocommunication Information Circular 3 Information on the Amateur Radio Service, provides information on various international agreements and arrangements related to amateur radio operation
RBR-4 click here 2022-09-29 click here Regulation by Reference (RBR-4), Standards for the Operation of Radio Stations in the Amateur Radio Service.
Safety Code 6 click here 2022-09-29 click here Safety Code 6 sets out recommended safety limits for human exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the frequency range from 3 kHz to 300 GHz. This includes communications devices and equipment that emit radiofrequency EMF.
EMCAB2 click here 2022-09-29 click here Electromagnetic Compatibility Advisory Bulletin-2: Criteria for Resolution of Immunity Complaints Involving Fundamental Emissions of Radiocommunications Transmitters
RIC-9 click here 2022-09-29 click here Radiocommunication Information Circular 9, Call Sign Policy and Special Event Prefixes
CPC-2-0-03 click here 2020-11-23 click here CPC-2-0-03 Radiocommunication and Broadcasting Antenna Systems
SOR/96-484 click here 2022-12-05 click here Radiocommunications Regulations. A consolidation of and replacement for several earlier Radio Regulations related to The General Radio Regulations, the Interference-causing Equipment Regulations and the Radio Operators' Certificate Regulations.
Important parts for hams are: Part V, paragraphs 38, 39, 46, 47, 48, 49,   and Part VII, paragraph 54-1

Other Technical Reference Documents

 Name Copy on this website Last Website Update Online source document Description
towers click here 2021-11-27 TOWERS: All you need to know

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List of Tricky Exam Questions

Questions from the exam bank that are a bit tricky and could use some explanation follow. (suggestions welcome)

Note: From time to time, the government changes the order of the answers for exam questions, to prevent people from memorizing the answer letter. The answer order, and thus their letters in these examples may be different that the current exam bank, but the concepts still apply.

Questions explained (18): 8-2-6, 1-6-2, 1-7-7, 1-9-1, 1-9-9, 1-10-9, 1-13-2, 6-4-2, 1-2-5, 1-3-6, 1-22-2, 1-6-4, 1-6-5, 1-8-2, 1-9-6, 6-11-2, 3-17-9, 5-9-5, 5-12-5
Questions about to be added: caught up.

B-008-002-006  (A) 

An amateur transmitter is being heard across the entire dial of a broadcast receiver. The receiver is most probably suffering from:

audio rectification in the receiver
B)  harmonics interference from the transmitter
poor image rejection
splatter from the transmitter

B-001-006-002 (A)

An amateur station may be used to communicate with:

A)  stations operated under similar authorizations
B)  any stations which are identified for special contests
C)  armed forces stations during special contests and training exercises
D)  any station transmitting in the amateur bands


This is a catch. "any station transmitting in the amateur bands" seems reasonable until you think that this other station may be operating unlawfully without a license. "Similarly licensed stations" is a much better answer. Amateurs are not allowed to knowingly conduct conversations with unlicensed stations.

B-001-007-007 (B)

What are the restrictions on the use of abbreviations or procedural signals in the amateur service?

A)  Only "10 codes" are permitted
B)  They may be used if the signals or codes are not secret

There are no restrictions
D)  They are not permitted because they obscure the meaning of a message to government monitoring stations


key word: SECRET. Specifically prohibited in the Radiocommunication Regulations.

B-001-009-001 (A)

Who is responsible for the proper operation of an amateur station?

A)  Both the control operator and the station owner
B)  Only the station owner who is the holder of an Amateur Radio Operator Certificate

C)  The person who owns the station equipment

Only the control operator
Explanation :

Both the licensee and the control operator ( a person other than the licensee who the owner may have left in charge of the station ) are responsible for proper operation of the station.

B-001-009-009 (A)

Which of the following statements is correct?

A)  Any person may operate an amateur station under supervision, and in the presence of, a person holding appropriate qualifications
B)  A person, holding only Basic Qualification, may operate another station on 14.2 MHz

C)  Radio amateurs may permit any person to operate the station without supervision

D)  Any person may operate a station in the amateur radio service


B): A Basic Qualification does not grant privileges below 30 MHz.  C) and D): The 'Control Operator' must be a licensed Amateur.

B-001-010-009 (A)

Which of the following is not correct? The operator of an amateur station:

A)  may make trials or tests, even though there is a possibility of interfering with other stations
B)  shall not cause harmful interference to a station in another service which has primary use of that band

C)  may conduct technical experiments using the station apparatus

D)  may make trials or tests, except if there is a possibility of interference to other stations


key words: NOT CORRECT.  B), C), and D) are true. Conducting tests which result in 'harmful interference' is prohibited.

B-001-013-002 (B)

How often must an amateur station be identified?

A)  At the beginning and end of each transmission
B)   At least every thirty minutes, and at the beginning and at the end of a contact

C)   At the beginning of a contact and at least every thirty minutes after that

At least once during each transmission

Station identification: your call sign in English or French, at the START and the END of a contact or test transmission and every 30 minutes at the most. Only Remote-Control transmissions to model craft need not include station identification.

B-006-004-002 (B)

What are some reasons to use parallel-conductor transmission line?

A)  It has a low impedance, and has less loss than coaxial cable
B)  It will operate with a high SWR, and has less loss than coaxial cable
C)  It has low impedance, and will operate with a high SWR
D)  It will operate with a high SWR, and it works well when tied down to metal objects
Explanation (See study guide section 7.3):

Short answer: If you're stuck with a high SWR, maybe due to antenna design, or condition, parallel conductor cable copes well with  it.

Long answer:

The high Characteristic Impedances and greater separation of the conductors in parallel lines DO permit high power and high Standing Wave Ratio (SWR) BUT nearby metallic objects can affect them and impedance matching is most often necessary at the transmitter end. Their high Characteristic Impedance permits carrying power with less current (P = R * I squared), less current implies less losses due to resistance.

B-001-002-005  (B)

The holder of an Amateur Radio Operator Certificate shall, at the request of a duly appointed radio inspector, produce the certificate, or a copy thereof, to the inspector, within ____ hours after the request:

A)  72
B)  48
C)  12
D)  24

Holder of radio authorization has 48 HOURS to fulfill the request of a radio inspector. (Radio Regulations)

B-001-003-006  (B)

Which of the following statements is not correct?

A) Where entry is refused, and is necessary to perform his duties under the Act, a radio inspector may obtain a warrant 
B) A radio inspector may enter a dwelling without the consent of the occupant and without a warrant
C) In executing a warrant, a radio inspector shall not use force, unless accompanied by a peace officer, and force is authorized
D) The person in charge of a place entered by a radio inspector shall give the inspector information that the inspector requests  

key words: DWELLING, NOT correct. A, C, and D are true. A radio inspector may NOT enter a dwelling (house) without consent AND without a warrant. (Radiocommunication Act)

B-001-022-002  (D)

Which of the following statements is not correct?

A) An accredited examiner may recover the cost of administering an examination
B) An accredited volunteer examiner must hold an Amateur Radio Operator Certificate with Basic, Advanced, and Morse code qualifications
C) The fee for taking an examination for an Amateur Radio Operator Certificate at an Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada office is $20 per qualification
D) The fee for taking an examination for an Amateur Radio Operator Certificate at an Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada office is $5 per qualification


key words: NOT CORRECT. A, B, and C are true. D is wrong: the fee at an Industry-Canada office is $20 PER qualification.

B-001-006-004  (C)

Which of the following statements is not correct?

A) No person shall possess or operate any device, for the purpose of amplifying the output power of a licence-exempt radio apparatus  
B) A person may operate or permit the operation of radio apparatus only where the apparatus is maintained to the Radiocommunication Regulations tolerances
C) A person may operate radio apparatus on the amateur radio bands only to transmit superfluous signals
D) A person may operate an amateur radio station when the person complies with the Standards for the Operation of Radio Stations in the Amateur Radio Service

key words: NOT CORRECT.   A, B and D are true. Transmitting superfluous (unnecessary) signals is illegal.

B-001-006-005  (A)

Which of the following statements is NOT correct? A person may operate radio apparatus, licensed in the amateur service:

A) on aeronautical, marine or land mobile frequencies
B) only where the person complies with the Standards for the Operation of Radio Stations in the Amateur Radio Service
C) only where the apparatus is maintained within the performance standards set by Industry Canada regulations and policies
D) but not for the amplification of the output power of licence-exempt radio apparatus

key words: NOT CORRECT. B, C and D are true. Amateurs are only allowed on bands assigned to the Amateur Service.

B-001-008-002  (C)

Which type of station may transmit one-way communications?

A) HF station
B) VHF station
C) Beacon station
D) Repeater station

Only three types of one-way communications are allowed: 1) Beacons (automated one-way stations used to assess propagation conditions), 2) remote control of model craft and 3) brief test transmissions

B-001-009-006  (D)

When a station is transmitting, where must its control operator be?

A) Anywhere in the same building as the transmitter
B) At the station's entrance, to control entry to the room
C) Anywhere within 50 km of the station location
D) At the station's control point


A licensed Amateur, the 'Control Operator', must be in charge of the station whenever it is on the air.

B-006-011-002 (C)

Approximately how long is the driven element of a Yagi antenna for 14.0 MHz?

A)  10.67 metres (35 feet)
B)  20.12 metres (66 feet)
C)  10.21 metres (33.5 feet)
D)  5.21 metres (17 feet)

Yagi driven elements are basically dipoles, which are half a wave length long.
For a frequency of 14.0 MHz, the wave length is 300 / 14.0 = 21.42 metres
So a half wave is 21.42 / 2 = 10.71
This is close to one of the answers, 10.67, but isn't the right one.

We need to apply the practical rule of thumb that applies to antenna lengths for frequencies below 30 MHz (or wave lengths over 10 metres)
This rule states that you should reduce antenna lengths by a factor of .95 for this range.

You can do this in 2 ways:
1) calculate the half wave length as we did above, and then take 95%, which works out to 10.71 * .95 = 10.17
2) assume that, for antenna purposes, (frequency * wave length) = 286 in this frequency range, rather than 300.
    In the above question:
         antenna wavelength = 286 /14.0 = 20.43
                       half of this =  20.43 / 2 = 10.21

For both of these methods, the closest answer is C) 10.21

The reason why the 2 methods don't precisely agree is because the 286 shortcut isn't exactly .95:  286/300 = .9533

The 95% factor is discussed in your study guide in section 8.5 Antenna Length

B-003-017-009 (D)

Your mobile HF transceiver draws 22 amperes on transmit. The manufacturer suggests limiting voltage drop to 0.5 volt and the vehicle battery is 3 metres (10 feet) away. Given the losses below at that current, which minimum wire gauge must you use?

A)  Number 14, 0.19 V per metre (0.06 V per foot)
B)  Number 12, 0.11 V per metre (0.03 V per foot)
C)  Number 8,   0.05 V per metre (0.01 V per foot)
D)  Number 10, 0.07 V per metre (0.02 V per

The voltage drop applies to the whole circuit, which starts at the battery's plus terminal, and ends at its negative terminal.

As someone pointed out in class, the distance between the radio and the battery is traversed twice in the circuit, probably using a cable that has 2 wires side by side:
- once from the battery's positive terminal to the radio
- once from the radio to the battery's negative terminal

Thus, we are dealing with 6 metres or 20 feet of wire length.

The maximum permitted voltage drop is 0.5 volt.

Metric calculation: .5 volt maximum drop, spread out over 6 metres, would be .5V / 6m = 0.083 Volts per metre.
Answer C, .05 V/m, and answer D, .07 V/m are both less than this calculated maximum of 0.083 V/m, but D is the minimum wire gauge of the two (#10 vs #8), as requested in the question.

Imperial calculation: .5 volt maximum drop, spread out over 20 feet, would be .5V / 20ft = 0.025 Volts per foot.
Answer C, .01 V/ft, and answer D, .02 V/ft are both less than this calculated maximum of 0.025 V/ft, but D is the minimum wire gauge of the two (#10 vs #8), as requested in the question.

The 22 Amp current given is unneeded extra information, apparently a decoy for the unwary

B-005-009-005 (C) 

What determines the inductance of a coil?

A)  The coil diameter, the number of turns of wire used to wind the coil and the type of metal used for the wire
B)  The core material, the coil diameter, the length of the coil and whether the coil is mounted horizontally or vertically
C)  The core material, the coil diameter, the length of the coil and the number of turns of wire used to wind the coil
D)  The core material, the number of turns used to wind the coil and the frequency of the current through the coil

Inductance in a coil is due to the interaction of the magnetic fields from one turn to the others. The ease of setting up a magnetic field through a suitable core material, the relative position of the turns (diameter and length) and the number of turns all contribute to inductance. The mounting direction, the type of metal, and the "frequency of the current" aren't relevant.

B-005-012-005 (A) 

When a parallel coil-capacitor combination is supplied with AC of different frequencies, there will be one frequency where the impedance will be highest. This is the:

A)  resonant frequency
B)  impedance frequency
C)  inductive frequency
D)  reactive frequency

It's tempting to rule out resonant frequency, because we generally want minimal impedance at resonance so the selected signal can get through. However, remember that we have two kinds of tuned circuits. Serial, where the coil and inductor are in series, and parallel where they're in parallel. In the serial case, the impedance is minimized at resonance, and the selected frequency is allowed to pass. In the parallel case, the impedance is maximized at resonance, and the selected frequency is prevented from passing through, i.e. it's filtered. The question specifies that we're talking about the parallel case, so maximum impedance is indeed achieved at the resonant frequency for that configuration. Study guide reference: section 4.16, Tuned Circuits, page 4-21.

B-00-00-00 (C) 

Doug's template - please ignore this section


More words here

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